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IDEO: Big Innovation Lives Right on the Edge of Ridiculous Ideas

When it comes to unlocking our creativity, goofing off isn't just kid stuff. The design gurus at IDEO explain how play drives innovation and learning.

Imagine for a second if you could somehow wrap up the creative chaos of a kindergartner’s life and apply it at work. You’d go on field trips, make stuff, hatch crazy ideas, and be awed by the world on a daily basis. Sound ridiculous? At the renowned international design consultancy IDEO, it’s how work gets done every day.

Psychologists tell us that as we age, we become self-conscious in classroom and other public settings, and quietly begin to suppress our playful tendencies for fear of being childish or breaking with social norms. Creativity requires that we fight against this trajectory.At IDEO, being playful is almost an obsession. The company believes that great, innovative work cannot happen without trial-and-error, experimentation, and maybe even a little tomfoolery. Few know this better than Brendan Boyle and Joe Wilcox of IDEO’s Toy Lab.

Boyle, who teaches a course at Stanford’s called “From Play to Innovation,” is a partner at IDEO and heads up the Toy Lab in addition to promoting entrepreneurial thinking throughout its locations worldwide.

Wilcox, a toy inventor at IDEO, is a former circus performer and kinetic sculptor turned industrial designer and founder of Sway Motorsports, an electric tilting trike project based in Palo Alto, California.

I spoke with Boyle and Wilcox by phone about how they integrate play into their work lives, and culture – and how you can, too.

First off, when I say the word “play” what does it mean to you?

Brendan Boyle: This is a quote from Stewart Brown, who is founder of the National Institute for Play, “Most people think that the opposite of play is work (especially in the corporate world) but the opposite is boredom or even depression.” To me, play is what you’re passionate about doing. You want to do it because it’s enjoyable and you want to keep doing it because it brings you joy. But play is a ton of effort.

Joe Wilcox: Play is a state of mind. I’ve heard it described as a visceral form of learning. It really doesn’t matter what the activity is, it’s the way you approach the activity that makes it play.

What common disconnects do organizations have around play?

Brendan: People tend to think a couple things. That work is work and play is frivolous and it’s only for kids. Or when they do try and incorporate it, they treat it separate from the work and schedule it in almost like it was recess. The core difference we’re trying to incorporate at IDEO is that play is part of the innovation process not just something you do when you roll out the ping pong tables at a specific time.


“From Ridiculous to Brilliant: Why We Play At Work,” a talk from Brendan Boyle

What mindset should a creative have when approaching play?

Joe: Try to encourage open-ended behavior. It’s not about goals, it’s about pushing the boundaries and discovering something.We model behaviors, experiment, and arrive at limitations and possibilities through direct contact with the world. At IDEO, we’re often trying to design around a narrative — it’s less about the object and more about the experience, the story of that object — so we’re looking for social and environmental cues as to what that experience is or could be. Through playing with different scenarios, through prototyping different possibilities, we get to that narrative.

Most people think that the opposite of play is work (especially in the corporate world) but the opposite is boredom or even depression.

For those that work with digital tools, how do you replicate playing and prototyping?

Brendan: We were recently working on an iPhone app for Sesame Street and were trying to think of how Elmo should dance. So, we cut out a giant iPhone from foam core and filmed different people dancing inside the window. It was a very playful way to prototype and, more importantly, we learned quickly which dance moves wouldn’t work. Our goal with prototyping is to build something quickly and learn and then make it better on the next round.

What are your daily schedules like?

Brendan: With email now it’s this kind of constant drip of interruption and trying to keep up. I’m trying to block late afternoon for brainstorming and prototyping. Our culture tries to account for this as well with building some flexibility for employees. We tried a no email rule from 10am-12pm and I think everyone was pretty good at it except me.Joe: Sometimes I’ll come in late at night and work stuff out or swing by on the weekends, to just noodle around. I’m definitely most likely to be inspired in late afternoon — but it’s hard for me to have a set moment where it’s like, “Okay, now I’m going to do play and creative things.” Fortunately, this is an environment where I can kinda flow through my day and if the mood strikes I can capitalize on it. It’s hard to be creative 9 to 5 so it’s nice when a workplace has some flexibility.

Brendan Boyle and Joe Wilcox.

How has IDEO built that type of hands-off culture of play?

Joe: Our culture is really one of being comfortable thinking on your feet and not worrying too much about failing in front of others. That’s important. The only place you’ll see any rules at IDEO is in a brainstorming session, and they’re rules like “Defer Judgment” and “Go For Quantity”. It’s about making a space that’s safe for taking risks. We try to encourage flexing your creative muscles and interacting, rather than being the smartest designer in the room.

Brendan: We also look to hire what we call T-shaped people, in that they have a depth in some area but the T across means they’re excited about learning across all disciplines of design thinking. Put simply, can you play with others?We try and avoid the I-shaped people. Those are what we call gurus and they’re generally cranky and don’t get along well in teams.

I also think the IDEO culture goes all the way back to the founder David Kelley and his philosophy that he wanted to start a company with friends. To me, that is a culture of play — hanging out with your buddies.

Try to encourage open-ended behavior. It’s not about goals, it’s about pushing the boundaries and discovering something.

Any advice for small companies or start-ups looking to adopt this?

Brendan: Start-ups are like running a gauntlet. The advice I say is to step back and think a little about the culture at the outset because it’s at the beginning that it gets formed. Plan for success but also plan for what the culture can be as well. If play is important to you, and I hope it is if you’re planning on being an innovative company, it will start with the founders. You can look at Google certainly as an example.Joe: I guess I’d say, don’t hold on to any one idea too tightly. Be ready to adapt. When we design a product for the first time, we don’t know how people will really use it, and I think the same can be said of businesses.

Also, I think space is one of the fundamental tools that can encourage and sustain a playful and collaborative culture.

The IDEO Toy Lab.

So you think the physical space plays a strong role in a culture?

Joe: Absolutely! We have a very collaborative space on purpose by having a small personal space and lots of shared space. Big tables in the room encourage people to stand around and co-create.

We also have a mini-shop off to the side so we can build stuff right as we’re talking about it. So, this circuit from ideas to objects, this feedback loop is a really tight loop.
Brendan: You really want to create an environment that allows for innovation. Big innovation is right on the edge of ridiculous ideas. You need an environment that isn’t quite so judgmental about a ridiculous idea. Sometimes those are the ones that are so close to being the brilliant ones. If a space that allows for play can help encourage those types of ideas than you’ll come up with some possibly ridiculous but potentially groundbreaking ideas.

How do you handle skeptics of play?

Brendan: I think you’re always going to get skeptics. Sometimes they’re just too much so the best thing is to avoid them or fire them.

In Tom Kelley’s book The 10 Faces of Innovation, he talks about the one guy in the meeting that anoints himself the role of playing devil’s advocate in a meeting. For some reason, he then gets to shoot-down everyone’s ideas. Tom makes a great point around, “What if this person had to play a different role? What if they had to play the ‘experimenter’ role?”

Joe: Those skeptics are in every walk of life. You can certainly combat it with the experimenter role. Show people it’s possible, don’t just tell them. It’s always been the seemingly improbable, boundary-pushing ideas that have created this world around us and none of that would have been possible if they’d listened to all the people who said it never would have worked. We’d still be living in caves if we relied on the skeptics.

More Posts by Jake Cook

Jake Cook is an entrepreneur, professor, and writer. A co-founder at Tadpull, he also teaches Online and Social Media Marketing at Montana State University. He’s fascinated by the intersection of design, technology and creativity. Follow him at @jacobmcook.

Comments (25)
  • friarminor

    We’ve always known that play brings out creativity in an individual.  What we cannot understand is why it is not encouraged for groups and/or adults.

  • Rebecca

    friarminor – I’d hazard a guess that it’s because it’s unpredictable. Most businesses and their culture are built around predictability, repeatability — quantifiable stuff. Creativity is inherently risky, and companies as entities are largely allergic to risk.

  • Bren T

    At the moment i’m designing on these bases! So i might not be that wrong or crazy as everyone around here thinks! 

  • Katherine M. Gordon

    Glad this article referenced the IDEO book “The Ten Faces of Innovation.” I recommend it to anyone I know who works in a creative field. Play is such an important part of innovation that the book recommends talking with kids about creative challenges. Some of IDEO’s best ideas and most breakthrough thinking came as a result of asking a child.

  • dissertation service

    thanks for adding the video!

  • Alanriain

    Reallt good insightful read.

  • James McInerney

    Nice, but I think the discussion on skeptics was a bit simplistic.

    I’ve been reading “Making Ideas Happen” by Scott Belsky (who actually quotes IDEO) which makes the point that we often need skeptics to shoot down the vast majority of half-baked ideas, so that we spend more time on the best ones.

    So perhaps we want skeptics to come in later in the process when the idea has had a chance to breath. Though it might be hard to know exactly when an idea has reached that point.

  • Cbrown

    spoken like a true skeptic

  • jkglei

    I agree skeptics play a role, James, and I don’t think IDEO would likely suggest otherwise.  Check out this piece on Disney’s technique for brainstorming:… – I think what IDEO is addressing here is very much phases 1 and 2, and then you take a step back for phase 3. 


    I think the title of this post hits the nail on the head. Sometimes to get close to success you really do have to touch the edges of ridiculousness. 

  • Sophie

    It undermines hierarchy.

  • Anton van Dort

    This article really contains a lot of interesting ideas and concepts, that can be adopted in many other area’s as well. Good stuff to read and digest and to implement in my own working environment. Thanks for this.

  • Karla Aranda

    I really appreciate this article. Thanks.

  • JAGallagher

    Oh my…I could live here! I just danced with soap bubble this morning with one of my clients…We both laughed…

  • essay help

    Thanks for the video

  • ElliottFryback

    The paradigm of this ideology is so important when thinking in terms of creativity and not discouraging any ideas, Steve Jobs for instance had a few ideas that were ridiculous but had to try to know where the line was and enabled him to make so many changes. Although I would still like more explanation of skeptics, there so important in feedback they deserve more attention.

  • Nfwithme

    Very useful article for me, there is more information I have is very important. Thank you! I’m glad you could get out of it to share with us.

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  • Print Guru

    I think using creativity throughout your day is the best way to continually be happy with your job.  And, the more creative you are on a daily basis, the better ideas you will come up with.  If the ideas of you and your employees are stifled, then you will lose enthusiasm for your job and true innovations will be lost.  So, encourage constant creativity from yourself and those around you and it will turn a job into a hobby.

  • essay help

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  • zolko

    Maybe you guys have heard about Mihály Csíkszentmihályi’s “Flow”. Same topic.

  • Wink Brand Design

    This article really resonates with me and takes me back to being a very young creative and reminds me of how free-spirited and playful I was. Years of working with agencies who have started out with great cultures eventually quash ‘play’ in response to the pressures of business. I remember begging to have the freedom to work some where else in the building away from computers, having more collaborative playful spaces and having the flexibility to work creative hours.

    I agree with everything mentioned here – play, T-shaped people and skeptics. I think the idea of cultivating this culture from the top is vital however I think you can only really mean it if you really believe in it.

    Quite excited by this now we have an opportunity to lay the right culture down as we grow our business. Thanks for sharing an inspiring article and articulating what has been kicking around in my brain for so many years.

  • Emlyn A

    Too often our natural creative and cognitive tendencies become second-tier considerations in what most often passes as “sensible practices” at businesses; meetings, conferences, brainstorming sessions, conventions and retreats. They seem great on paper, if you like blank paper.

    Perhaps if businesses installed showers and ocean-side drives at every cubicle, they’d realize a more humanly creative environment.

    My 2 cents.

  • Navi Radjou

    Great article. In my new book Jugaad Innovation, we profile flexible-minded entrepreneurs and employees at GE, PepsiCo, 3M, Facebook, Google who are using their “playful” spirit to turn conventional wisdom on its head and improvise simple but effective solutions to vexing issues in energy, healthcare, education. The book also provides recommendations for fostering a “playful” culture within a large organization. Check out  

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