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How to Apply Lateral Thinking to Your Creative Work

“Lateral thinking is concerned not with playing with the existing pieces but with seeking to change those very pieces.”

Pretend that you’re trapped in a magical room with only two exits. Through the first exit is a room made from a giant magnifying glass, and the blazing hot sun will fry you to death. Through the second door is a room with a fire-breathing dragon. Which do you go through?

The first door, of course. Simply wait until the sun goes down. 

The answer to this puzzle is an example of what psychologists call “lateral thinking.” The most elegant solution presents itself when you approach the problem sideways, rather than answering it head-on. Though the question is presented as a binary choice—one option or the other—when you disregard the assumption that you must act immediately, the “best” answer becomes obvious. 

Like our magical room, marketers have a bad habit of charring great terms to death. In business, we tend to tout “creativity” and “innovation” and “thinking outside the box” until they mean nothing. However, when you unwrap all of its buzzwords and euphemisms, history shows that creative breakthroughs all have one thing in common: they occur when people employ lateral thinking.

“We assume certain perceptions, certain concepts and certain boundaries,” explains Edward de Bono, who coined the term in 1967. “Lateral thinking is concerned not with playing with the existing pieces but with seeking to change those very pieces.” It’s the art of reframing questions, attacking problems sideways. They way a computer hacker or, say, MacGyver would think.

Breakthroughs, by very definition, only occur when assumptions are broken. In creative fields, this often happens when people break rules that aren’t actually rules at all, but rather simply conventions. Pablo Picasso changed art forever by smashing the “rules” of perspective, color, proportion. His Cubism took hold in Paris faster than Van Gogh’s impressionism—and any other new form, for that matter. Apple turned the tech world on its head by radically simplifying music and mice when everyone else equated more buttons and more megabytes and more jargon with better. When we look at great inventions and solutions to problems throughout history—the kinds that make what came before instantly obsolete—we see this pattern again and again.

Breakthroughs, by very definition, only occur when assumptions are broken.

The trouble for most of us is that even if we’re “creative,” our default setting is “linear thinking.” But that default can be overridden. Here are five steps to train yourself to think a little more laterally with any challenge:

1) List the assumptions

When confronted with a question (problem, challenge, etc.), write out the assumptions inherent to the question. In the case of the puzzle above, the list might include the following:

  • You want to get out of the room
  • You have to choose one of the two options
  • You have to do something now
  • Room One will kill you no matter what (or so we think!)
  • Room Two will kill you no matter what

2) Verbalize the convention

Next, ask yourself the question, “How would a typical person approach this problem?” Map out the obvious, straightforward solutions. Then ask yourself, “What if I couldn’t go this route?” 

3) Question the question

Ask yourself, “What if I could rewrite the question?” Rearrange the pieces, as de Bono suggests, to form a new scenario. In the trapped room scenario, instead of, “Which do you go through?” you might rewrite the question to ask, “Will you go through one of them?” or “Will these really kill you?” or “Do you even need to go through one of them?” 

4) Start backwards

Often the route to solving a problem is revealed when you start with the solution first, and try to work backward. For example, asking the question, “How would I get into a trapped room if it were adjoined by a room made out of a magnifying glass?” By reframing the challenge in this way, you’ll notice that I stripped away the details that cause you to overthink the answer to the trapped room example. But in a real-life scenario, this question might sound more like, “How could we renewably generate 10 gigajoules of electricity?” rather than “How could we make the city more energy efficient?”—a vague question that often results in straightforward, but ineffective answers like, “Get people to turn off their lights more.” 

5) Change perspective

Finally, one of the reasons innovation often happens when outsiders enter a new industry, or when disparate groups bump into one another, is because fresh perspective are convention-ignorant. To kickstart lateral thinking, you might do well to pretend you were someone else trying to solve the problem. Say, if you were a magician, or a scientist, or a track and field star—how would they escape from the fire room? Or how would the fire-breathing dragon answer this question? Etc.


Before the Earth was a sphere, it was flat. Before it revolved around the sun, the universe revolved around it. Before Einstein’s relativity we had only Newton’s gravity. With every such advance we broke assumptions that were so ingrained that most people didn’t think to question them. And writing the new paradigms often took more work than one might expect—even though the solutions themselves often proved simple.

In our modern work culture, we generally cling to two conventions when solving problems: 1) put your head down and work relentlessly until fortune strikes; and 2) spend as little effort as possible. The problem with each of these philosophies is actually somewhat lazy. Mental work is more difficult than rote physical work, though we often fool ourselves into thinking that because you can see the latter, it’s just as or more valuable. Conversely, no one ever changed the world by cutting corners. It’s the combination of the two, hard work and mental flexibility, that leads to revolutions.

In other words: though they say that the shortest distance between two points is a straight line, if there are enough people standing in that line—following the conventional wisdom—the fastest path between those two points might involve a few steps sideways. 

[Ed. note: this post is inspired by Shane’s book Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success, available on Amazon now.]

How about you?

How have you applied lateral thinking?

More Posts by Shane Snow

Comments (19)
  • Parvesh

    Great article. I like your philosofie on lateral thinking. Seems like one have to take a minute when answering tricky questions. Most of the time, i feel the need to give a quick answer, or give multiple answers. I guess i must remind myself about this theory on 99u. Thank you.

  • Ian Rono

    great insight it really helps change ones perspective into problem solving and innovation as a whole clearly opening doors to greater heights. thanks Shane.

  • chrishenry

    I really like the point about questioning the question. It relates very closely to Spolsky’s 5 whys.

  • Soon Min

    Thanks for these really useful tips. The challenge i sometimes face is similar to what another commenter, Parvesh, mentioned. It’s as if at the moment of the question, it feels as if i need to answer it as quickly as possible and this shuts down the ability to see a new perspective. In my line of work, we have to deal with multiple stakeholders, including consumers. Related to your technique of ‘changing perspective’, we try to list these different stakeholders that are connected to the problem and try to find a new angle that way.

  • Len Yeh

    Actually, I’d still pick the fire breathing dragon. I can always use a good challenge. And my creativity is telling me to domesticate it. Then I have a pet dragon.

    Or I die. High risk, high reward.

    • Len Yeh

      Also, the dragon could be a vegan from Los Angeles.

  • hacksa

    Are there resources ie books that has some exercises to practice these…like mental exercises?

  • boucains

    I bought the book like a good little sheep, which is the underlying reason for providing teaser trailers…(what is the official spelling for the sound a sheep makes?)

    Mr. Snow, you make a great case for “laziness” being the mother of invention, something I’ve said for a few decades as I surfed through various life experiences. However, mental effort must be matched at some point by physical effort. There are lots of people with ideas, and very few transformative inventions. That is where your comments differ from the “don’t be afraid to fail” mantra going around.

    IBM Research, at one time, was one of the pinnacles of a career in science. Funded well and freed from having to develop a product, IBM generated tens of thousands of patents involving products we all use on a regular basis. That was great while “nobody ever got fired for buying IBM”, but the money machine failed in the 1990’s. IBM researchers were encouraged to follow lines of inquiry that could be put into a product within ten years. Lou Gerstner changed the culture at IBM, and they enjoyed a renaissance of sorts.

    The news yesterday mentioned the growing money problems at IBM once again. The company reported that it has been at the top of the patent granting pyramid for 21 straight years now, getting 6,809 patent grants in 2013. That’s all going to be sold to the highest bidder if IBM can’t generate enough revenue through physical products and services related to those patents.

    So, don’t be afraid to fail, but wear a parachute if you decide to fail by jumping out of a plane.

  • Geoff Naylor

    I was going to say; ‘Simply wait until the fire-breathing dragon falls asleep’, but see that Larry stole my idea (or simply beat me to it of course). As an alternative on the ‘Wait’ theme I could suggest ‘Wait until the dragon gets bored and leaves’ or even ‘Wait for Larry to come up with the answer!’
    Or even more appealing ‘Stay in the room with the gorgeous, half-clad blond companion’ (where does it say I’m alone or have to leave the room?)

  • R.Royal

    I enjoyed this article thank you. That last sentence in the second to last paragraph is a favorite of mines.

  • peter punky

    Apologies for nit-picking, but i feel like the general idea is solid: to make break-throughs on e must step back and consider the problem from a further removed point of view. However, little in the article really gives consideration to how to remove oneself from the situation far enough to consider it in a clairvoyant manner

  • Max

    Apple turned tech on it’s head with the one-button mouse? what a bad example of innovation. I wish my apple mouse had two buttons. People design on Apple computers because they think it makes them designers and that it makes them cool. Apple also didn’t make music simple. itunes forces me to things in a certain way. Other computers let me copy and manitpulate files in any way I wish. Apple restrains and forces.

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